Traditional Architecture of Indonesia

Indonesia is a country with vast natural beauty stretching from Sabang to Merauke, diversity of culture and tourism combined with the unique characteristics of each local community. One of sample of the cultural heritage of Indonesia is Architecture Traditional. The unique from Architecture Traditional of Indonesia because Indonesia has 33 provinces, each of Indonesia's ethnic groups has its own distinctive form of the traditional vernacular architecture of Indonesia, known as rumah adat.  

Rumah adat or Custom House are at the centre of a web of customs, social relations, traditional laws, taboos, myths and religions that bind the villagers together. The house provides the main focus for the family and its community, and is the point of departure for many activities of its residents. Traditional Indonesian homes are not architect designed, rather villagers build their own homes, or a community will pool their resources for a structure built under the direction of a master builder and/or a carpenter.

With few exceptions, the peoples of the Indonesian archipelago share a common Austronesian ancestry (originating in Taiwan, c. 6,000 years ago), and traditional homes of Indonesia share a number of characteristics such as timber construction, varied and elaborate roof structures. The earliest Austronesian structures were communal longhouses on stilts, with steep sloping roofs and heavy gables, as seen in the Rumah Adat Batak and the Torajan Tongkonan. Variations on the communal longhouse principle are found among the Dayak people of Borneo, as well as the Mentawai people in Nias Island.
Nias House : Longhouse and stilts
The norm is for a post, beam and lintel structural system that take load straight to the ground with either wooden or bamboo walls that are non-load bearing. Traditionally, rather than nails, mortis and tenon joints and wooden pegs are used. Natural materials - timber, bamboo, thatch and fibre - make up rumah adat. Hardwood is generally used for piles and a combination of soft and hard wood is used for the house's upper non-load bearing walls, and are often made of lighter wood or thatch. The thatch material can be coconut and sugar palm leaves, alang alang grass and rice straw.

Toraja Village
Traditional dwellings have developed to respond to natural environmental conditions, particularly Indonesia's hot and wet monsoon climate. As is common throughout South East Asia and the South West Pacific, most rumah adat are built on stilts, with the exception of Java and Bali. Building houses off the ground on stilts serve a number of purposes: it allows breezes to moderate the hot tropical temperatures; it elevates the dwelling above stormwater runoff and mud; it allows houses to be built on rivers and wetland margins; it keeps people, goods and food from dampness and moisture; lifts living quarters above malaria-carrying mosquitos; and reduces the risk of dry rot and termites.
Padang Traditional House : Window details and decorative
The sharply inclined roof allows the heavy tropical rain to quickly sheet off, and large overhanging eaves keep water out of the house and provide shade in the heat. In hot and humid low-lying coastal regions, homes can have many windows providing good cross-ventilation, whereas in cooler mountainous interior areas, homes often have a vast roof and few windows.

Some of the more significant and distinctive rumah adat base on each of Province in Indoenesia, for example:

1. Province Aceh
Acehnese traditional houses called "Rumoh Aceh". This custom home-type houses on stilts with 3 main sections and an additional part. Three main parts of Aceh is home seuramoë keuë (front porch), seuramoë Teungoh (central foyer) and seuramoë likot (back porch). While an additional part that is rumoh Dapu (home kitchen).
Rumah Aceh : Rumoh Aceh
2. Province North Sumatra / Batak
Architecture of traditional houses found in various forms of ornamentation. In general, the form of building custom homes in the Batak indigenous group symbolizing "standing buffalo". It is even more clear to decorate the top of the roof with a buffalo head. The traditional house of the Batak, Batak Ruma, standing tall and stately, and still mostly found in Samosir.

  • Karo traditional house "Siwaluh Jabu" looks great and is higher in comparison with other custom homes. The roof is made of fibers and is usually coupled with the roofs of the smaller triangle is called a "ayo-ayo rumah" and "tersek". With soaring roof layers Karo's house has a distinctive shape compared with other traditional houses that have only one layer of roofing in North Sumatra. Read my next blog: Traditional House of North Sumatera
Batak Karo : Siwaluh Jabu

      • Batak Toba: Bolon, The form of custom homes in the area Simalungun quite attractive. Complex custom homes in the village of Ancient Causeway consists of several buildings that "house Bolon", Bolon hall, drying, abstinence hall need, and dimples. Read my next blog: Traditional House of North Sumatera
            Batak Toba : Bolon
            • Nias Island: "Omo Niha", The shape and layout of the house type and type Gomo Moro. Home with the type of Moro, ovoid shape diagram. While the house type Gomo, schematics nearly a square, but contain curved lines. Nias construction of houses made ​​of hard wood and sturdy. Poles are high, so people can get into under the house. Forms of traditional chief's house, the roof is dominant compared to other houses.  Read my next blog: Traditional House Nias with Earthquake Resistant
            Nias Island House : Omo Niha
            3. Province West Sumatra / Padang
            The traditional house of West Sumatra, especially from ethnic Minangkabau called "Rumah Gadang". Usually built on a plot of land belonging to the parent family in the tribe / people are hereditary. Not far from gadang house complexes are usually also built a mosque that serves as a place of worship and residence of the adult male but not yet married.

            Tower House is made rectangular and divided into two front and rear portion, generally made of wood, and a cursory look like a house on stilts with the roof shape of a typical, stand out like a buffalo horn, the local community and was formerly called gonjong roof is made ​​from fibers before switching with a tin roof. Bagonjong house is inspired by the local community of legend, which tells of the arrival of their ancestors by boat from the sea. Another characteristic of this traditional house is not wearing metal spikes but the use of wooden pegs, yet powerful enough as a binder.

            Rumah Gadang
            4. Province Riau
            Traditional House : Rumah melayu selaso jatuh kembar (Rumah Lancang)
            Rumah Lancang
            5. Province Riau Islands
            Traditional House : Rumah Selaso Jatuh Kembar (Rumah Belah Bubung)

            Rumah belah bubung
            6. Province Jambi
            Traditional House : Rumah Panjang

            Rumah Panjang
            7. Province South Sumatra / Palembang
            The house is a wooden stage. In terms of architecture, the wooden houses were called Rumah Limas / pyramid house because of the shape of a pyramid roof. Inherent nature of South Sumatra with fresh water, be it wetlands and rivers, people build houses on stilts. Sungai .Musi on the banks of the pyramid there is still a house overlooking the river entrance.

            There are two types of pyramid house in South Sumatra, the pyramid was built houses with floors of different heights and are parallel. Limas house whose floor level is often called a pit house. House building pyramid using unglen or merbau wood is waterproof. The walls are made of wooden planks arranged upright. For up to the house pyramid made ​​of two wooden terraces from the left and right. Part of the terrace house is usually surrounded by a wooden fence called tenggalung barred. Philosophical meaning behind the wooden fence that is to hold that girls are not out of the house.

            Part of the room walls are decorated with carved floral motifs are painted with golden color. Not infrequently, the owner uses the tin and gold carvings and antique chandeliers as an accessory. Golden yellow color of paint that will be retained as distinct from Palembang. In addition to wood carvings, decorative carved cabinets along the walls of a confirmation of the guest room

            Limas House
            8. Province Lampung
            Traditional House : Nuwo sesat

            Nuwo Sesat
            9. Province Bengkulu
            Traditional House : Rumah bubungan lima (Rumah Rakyat)

            Bubungan Lima House
            10. Province Bangka-Belitung Islands
            Rumah Adat Tradisional : Rumah rakit/Rumah Gede
            Physical form and function of the physical form of traditional house traditional house Belitong very simple, is home Panggong; houses supported by wooden poles the best choice. All the building materials made ​​of wood up to the roof, called the shingles of buildings divided into three parts, patio room, living room or main, buffer space, and space is public space belakang.Ruang terrace; like a living room so the things that not so important can be discussed here, even when the royal officials to watch the show on the Rumah Gede will always be sitting here.
            Rumah Rakit
            11. Province DKI Jakarta
            Traditional House : Rumah kebaya
            Read my next blog: Traditional House of DKI Jakarta / Betawi

            Kebaya House
            12. Province West Java / Sunda
            Traditional House : Kesepuhan

            Kesepuhan House
            13. Province Banten
            Traditional House : Kasepuhan

            Kasepuhan House
            14. Province Central Java
            Traditional House : Rumah joglo
            The architecture of Central Java is characterised by the juxtaposition of the old and the new and a wide variety of architectural styles, the legacy of many successive influences by the Indians, the Persians and the Arabs, the Chinese, and the Europeans. In particular, northern coastal cities such as Semarang, Tegal and Pekalongan can boast fine colonial European architecture. The European and Chinese influence can be seen in Semarang's temple of Sam Poo Kong dedicated to Zheng He and the Domed Church built in 1753. The latter is the second oldest church in Java and the oldest in Central Java. Inland Surakarta, as a former capital, also has some fine European architecture.

            Famous for its religious heritage, Central Java has some notable religious buildings. The Borobudur and the Prambanan temple complexes are among the largest Buddhist and Hindu structures in the world. In general, a characteristic Javanese mosque doesn't have a dome as its roof but a Meru-like roof instead, which is reminiscent of a Hindu or Buddhist temple. The tower of the famous Mosque of Kudus resembles a Hindu-Javanese or Balinese temple more than a traditional Middle-Eastern mosque.

            Kudus House
            15. Province DI Yogyakarta
            Traditional House : Rumah Bangsal Kencono
            Bangsal Kencono House
            16. Province East Java / Surabaya
            Traditional House : Rumah joglo

            Joglo House
            17. Province Bali
            Bali house in accordance with the rules of Asta Kosala Kosali (the Vedas are the layout of rooms and buildings, like Feng Shui in Cultural China)

            According to the philosophy of the Balinese people, the dynamism of life will be achieved when the realization of a harmonious relationship between aspects Pawongan, Palemahan and Parahyangan. For the construction of a house should include these aspects, or the so-called Tri Hita Karana. Pawongan are the occupants of the house. Palemahan means there must be good relations between residents and the environment.

            In general, buildings or areas of traditional Balinese architecture is always filled with ornaments, carvings, tools, and the color. Decorative contain a certain sense of beauty as an expression of symbols and communication delivery. Decorative forms of fauna species also serve as ritual symbols are displayed in the sculpture

            Read my next blog; "The History of Traditional Architecture Balinese".

            Bali House
            18. Province Nusa Tenggara Barat / Lombok
            Traditional House : Dalam loka samawa

            Dalam loka samawa
            19. Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur / Kupang
            Traditional House : Sao ata mosa lakitana (Musalaki)
            Musalaki House
            20. Provinsi West Kalimantan / Pontianak
            Traditional House : Rumah panjang
            Panjang House
            21. Provinsi Central Kalimantan / Palangka Raya
            Traditional House : Rumah bentang
            Bentang House
            22. Provinsi South Kalimantan / Banjarmasin
            Traditional House : Rumah Banjar Bubungan Tinggi

            23. Provinsi East Kalimantan /Tenggarong
            Traditional House : Rumah lamin

            24. Provinsi North Sulawesi /Menado
            Traditional House : Rumah Pewaris

            25. Provinsi Gorontalo
            Traditional House : Rumah Dolohupa

            26. Provinsi Central Sulawesi /Palu
            Traditional House : Souraja / Rumah besar

            27. Provinsi Southeast Sulawesi /Kendari
            Traditional House : Laikas

            28. Province South Sulawesi /Ujung Pandang
            Traditional House : Tongkonan
            The word 'Tongkonan' is derived from the Toraja word tongkon (‘to sit’). Tongkonan are the center of Torajan social life. The rituals associated with the tongkonan are important expressions of Torajan spiritual life, and therefore all family members are impelled to participate, because symbolically the tongkonan represents links to their ancestors and to living and future kin.
            Read my Nrxt Blog; Traditional House of North Sulawesi

            29. Province West Sulawesi / Mamuju
            Traditional House : banua layuk

            30. Province Maluku / Ambon
            Traditional House : Baileo

            31. Province North Maluku
            Traditional House : Sasadu

            32. Province Irian Jaya / Papua
            Traditional House : Rumah Honai

            33. Province West Papua / Manokwari
            West Papua has more than 300 indigenous tribes, as a group and live a nomadic life, or to move where. The traditional house has only one form of "Honai House", though different tribes, languages ​​and lifestyles. Honai house built by wood and straw, that materials building are readily available in natural surroundings.

            One Honai house, consisting of several families or single heads of households with multiple wifes and children. Home honai has circular form with a half of coconut-shaped roof. Also open space interior with 2 level, which on top level used as a bed.

            Honai house has one door and small, it usually without windows and ventilation to safe from beast and keep the room temperature still warm. Center of the room there is a furnace that is used for cooking and for room heating. As well as a gathering place for families.